The attraction of the cylindrical hollow (tubular) structure is to provide different functions to the inner pore space, tube wall, and outer surface, independently. We have synthesized protein nanotubes by a unique alternate layer-by-layer asssembly technique in a porous polycarbonate membrane. Hepatitis B virus, influenza virus, and E. coli are efficiently incorporated into the inner space of the tube. Placing the enzyme in the innermost layer causes the hydrolysis reaction of the substrate and ring-opening polymerization of the lactone. In addition to proteins and water-soluble polymers, DNA and gold nanoparticles (AnNP) can be used as constituents of the tube wall.
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